pavise A shield used in the making of a pavisade. 64 M. Oppenheim (ed. On his death in 1305, he had a string of fiefs and honours including as well as estates in Aragon, Djerba and Kerkema off the Tunisian coast, Malta and Gozo and Castel d’Aci in Sicily. Myers, A.R., English Historical Documents, 1327–1485, Vol. Their arrival was greeted with enthusiasm by Alfonso-Henry, count of Portugal who enlisted their aid in the siege of Lisbon, then a Moorish stronghold. 15 William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea (trans. Despite the often vicious weather on the east coast in the winter these ships were at sea in these months, the master of the Welfare being paid for the period from November to February and specifically said to be at sea. Guy steered his ship, now under full sail towards Grimaldi’s own galley, broke up its oars but failed to grapple it successfully. 13 The whereabouts of the Angevin archives are discussed in J. Mazzolini, ‘Les archives des Angevins de Naples’, in I. Bonnot et al., Marseille et ses Rois, Aix en Provence, 1989. This has varied meanings including ‘collide with’ or ‘crash into’ as well as attack. A thousand people for one month should receive as well as the ubiquitous biscuit large quantities of cider and wine, 4 lbs of beef per person per week, 8 lbs of bacon per person every 18 days, 4 lbs of cheese for fast days (12 in this case) and also butter on a similar scale. D.S. 121 M E D I E VA L N AVA L WA R FA R E , 1 0 0 0 – 1 5 0 0 39 J.A. I, Malta, Foundation for International Studies, 1989. Later on in the sixteenth century this was further developed with the specialist cultivation of trees to produce knees, the shaped curved timbers needed for the frames to support deck timbers. 20 J.H. In the first third of the century the conflict between England and France was the dominant factor with other states being drawn in as allies of one or the other combatant. The actual construction of the new fleet began in 1177. The details of the preliminaries to the engagement itself are recounted in a letter from a Venetian galley soarcomito (commander) Geronimo Longo to members of his family.28 He describes the Turkish fleet as enormous, over 300 ships including 108 galleys, ‘the sea looked like a wood’. 2 Vegetius De Re Militari, Lib.IV XLV, http://www.gmu.edu/departments/fld/CLASSICS/ vegetius4.html. … Our knights with their lances and our bowmen with their arrows drove them into the sea and in this way unexpectedly routed them.18 It has also been suggested, as we have seen, that by the twelfth century most Muslims were frightened of the sea and very reluctant to get involved in any naval operations. Bréard, Charles, ‘Le compte du Clos des Galées de Rouen au XIV siècle 1382–1384’ in Blanquart, Bouquet, Bréard, de Circourt, Regnier, Sauvage (eds), Documents, Deuxième Serie, Rouen, Société de la Histoire de Normandie, 1893. A factor in the English victory may have been the arrival of reinforcements for them in the form of the northern squadron of English ships commanded by Robert Morley.27 What is not in doubt is the later fame of the battle at least among the English. Again the order is issued that no vessel or group of vessels can break off the engagement without express permission; moreover attacks on individual enemy ships must follow the plan decided on and not be left, as it were, to private enterprise. Unger has attributed ‘the pattern of development in naval administration’ to ‘advances in ship design’.2 Can the same be said of the tactics and strategy employed in war at sea? 48 Rotuli Parliamentorum, VII Richard II, p. 162. 156–9. Even the mainly Arab trading vessels of the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and Indian Ocean were little known to Mediterranean seafarers from the Christian states. Its precise composition is still obscure but devices capable of projecting a flame some distance existed and were used at least until the twelfth century. Riley Smith, J., The Crusades: A Short History, London, Athlone Press. (English) p. 25, (Spanish) p. 30. Be the first to receive exclusive offers and the latest news on our products and services directly in your inbox. He retired to Negroponte and successfully held off the Genoese until the Catalans arrived. It even seems not to have affected his reputation that the first engagement was not entirely successful. 6 C.L. 19 A.G. Sanz, Historia de la Marina Catalana, Barcelona, Editorial Aedos, 1977, p. 76–81. The same would true of the use of terminology in different geographical regions. The only battle orders, as opposed to a chronicle description, relating to galleys, comes from the much later battle of Zonchio in 1499. It does not, however, alter the basic fact that, given the experience of other invaders, albeit operating on a somewhat smaller scale, William had every right to hope to get ashore unopposed. The Venetians could not successfully defend their coastal bases if their hinterland was in enemy hands. If we consider the main maritime states of this region, England and France, it is clear that their rulers did at various periods control quite large groups of ships. In 1294 the Genoese caught the Venetian muda for Armenia off the port of Lajazzo and captured the bulk of the fleet and the goods it carried. 17 Le Citoyen Legrand d’Aussy, Notice sur l’état de la marine en France au commencement du quatrième siècle: et sur la tactique navale usitée alors dans les combats de mer, Paris, year VI, pp. In France the wife of the dauphin Louis, Blanche of Castile (who was also Henry II’s granddaughter) was energetically raising fresh troops for his cause. Exchequer Accounts various E101/49/33. Haywood, J., Dark Age Naval Power: A Reassessment of Frankish and Anglo-Saxon Seafaring Activity, London, Routledge, 1991. G. Lefevre-Pontalis), Société de l’Histoire de France, 4 vols, Paris 1898–1902, I, p. 107 and A. Guistiniani, Annali della Repubblica di Genova (ed. Blegier’s assistants are described as Normans. The Gesta Henrici Quinti describes the impression that Harfleur made on the invading English in 1415. 51–81. All were generally known as ‘arsenale’ even if on a much smaller scale. Although the sailing qualities of Viking ships were remarkable, the crews of the galleons and barks of, for example the Spanish and Portuguese, could face long sea passages with equanimity. Very little is known about their organisation or their working methods. There has very rarely been any sudden technological innovation which has produced a distinctive new ship type overnight. The triangular lateen sails, adopted from those of the Arab dhows, permitted the galleas to sail nearly straight into the wind, impossible with square sails. Was England particularly well placed to dominate the seas which surrounded her? The history of medieval naval warfare is the history of the galley. The Venetians meanwhile, who had had difficulty in manning Ruzzini’s fleet because of the aftermath of the Black Death had made alliances with Aragon and the Byzantine Emperor John Cantacuzenus thus creating a fleet of potentially more than 60 galleys, (40 of their own, 12 Catalan-Aragonese, eight Greek in Venetian pay, 12 Greek funded by the Emperor). 29 There are frequent references to the payment of the wages of mariners at Portsmouth in the Close Rolls for this period. Abello, ‘Los costes de las galeras en el siglo XV: La Galera Sant Narcis destinada a las comunicaciones con Italia’, Anuario d’estudios medievales, 10, 1980, pp. Some crews at the very least now had the confidence and ship handling skills to lay one ship alongside another in a seaway and then mount a successful boarding action despite the best efforts of the crossbowmen or the troops in the enemy’s fighting tops hurling stones or other missiles. Both sides of the Channel were largely ruled by the same family; disputes occurred between individuals who wished to make good their rival claims to the throne of England but the resulting fighting had more the character of civil wars or rebellions than international conflict. An expedition must also be well disciplined and well commanded. Forchieri, G., Nave e navigazione a Genova nel trecento: il Libro Gazzarie, Collana Storica di Finti e Studi, Collana Storica dell’oltremare Ligure IV, Bordighera, Istituto Internazionale di Studi Ligure, 1974. OXFORD C S, MEDIEVAL WARFARE GARLAND MEDIEVAL BIBLIOGRAPHIES VOLUME 21 GARLAND REFERENCE LIBRARY OF THE HUMANITIES VOLUME 2224 J.H. 42 The Aragonese commander, Pere de Moncada, wrote wearily to Peter III at the end of 1341 when he had been ordered to stay in the Straits with his fleet, ‘it seems that those who attended to the letters you have sent neither knew nor were thinking of what it feels like here at sea’. The galleys were to be victualled for 200 men for a month. Warner, Sir G. Ford’s evidence is in many ways persuasive, particularly the wording of a 83 M E D I E VA L N AVA L WA R FA R E , 1 0 0 0 – 1 5 0 0 draft agreement between the English government and the deputies of the Four Members of Flanders. More is known about the details of administration, the names of officials and mechanisms of payment than about the organisation of dockyards.23 In England, Henry II probably owned at least one ship sometimes described as an esnecca, and certainly employed a certain Alan Trenchemer as the commander of ships in the royal service on more than one occasion. The entire Channel coast was now in the hands either of the English crown or its allies, Burgundy and Brittany. 32 J. Paviot, op. cit. 26 M. Paris, Historia Anglorum, p. 217–21. MEDIEVAL WARFARE A HISTORY Burgess, L.A., The Southampton Terrier of 1454, Historical Manuscripts Commission, JP 21, London, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1976. Developed by the Venetians, the galleas had a gun deck, oars, and two to three masts. The first attack in fact took place three days after his death. Morris, The English Government at Work 1327–1336, Cambridge, MA, Medieval Academy of America, 1940. There are gaps caused by unpredictable events like the fires in the sixteenth century in the Doge’s Palace in Venice, where the archives were stored, but much remains. 302–75. If we look for the long-term consequences of the victories of either Sluys or Les Espagnols for the English and their war with France, later historians have tended to lay emphasis on those of Sluys while almost completely ignoring Les Espagnols. In northern waters, there is less evidence of widespread interest in more distant landfalls, but even so the Iceland route, well known to Scandinavians, was explored mainly by mariners from English east coast ports. 67 A. d’Haenens, Europe of the North Sea and the Baltic: The World of the Hanse, Antwerp, Fonds Mercator, 1984, p. 152. Moore. The decision was taken to attack even though the commanders knew that their galleys would be at a disadvantage in the open sea if the wind got up. He also states that the ships passed cables from one to the other as did the galleys which were behind the nefs, tying them into a block. The total cost was £124 2s 3½d. Second, it is plain that the English ships were all round ships, probably small cogs (the order for the requisitioning of ships for Pembroke’s voyage mentions vessels of less than 50 tuns burden with only three larger escorts with ‘castles’). There seems little reason to doubt the truth of this observation which is well borne out by, for example, the way he describes how, at the battle of Rosas, the enemy decks were cleared of anyone capable of offering resistance by the withering and accurate fire of crossbowmen. Anna Comnena described the Byzantine ships armed in this way; ‘ the Greek fire to be hurled at the enemy through tubes was made to issue from the mouths of these figureheads (gilded lions) in such a way that they appeared to be belching out fire’.3 She then goes on to discuss the action against the Pisans during the First Crusade when these weapons were used. Pryor, ‘The naval battles of Roger of Lauria’, p. 203 H. Finke, Acta Aragonesa. Guilmartin, Gunpowder and Galleys: Changing Technology and Mediterranean Warfare at Sea in the Sixteenth Century’, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1974, p. 86. The text of the petition is also printed in The Mariner’s Mirror, 9, 1923, pp. Nothing was done for some time but at last in 1260 an expedition set out for Sale, on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, a notorious base for pirates. Concerted efforts of over 300 local women to pull her free construction of the two partners! 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